The IMF Must Immediately Stop Promoting Austerity Around the World

More than five hundred of the world’s leading charities, social groups and academics have sent a letter to the International Monetary Fund warning that its support programs, which have had to be ramped up to cope with COVID-19, were condemning many countries to years of austerity.

Oxfam International
14 min readOct 6, 2020

We, the undersigned, call on the IMF to immediately stop promoting austerity around the world, and instead advocate policies that advance gender justice, reduce inequality, and decisively put people and planet first.

As those who care about governments’ ability to fulfil human rights and advance progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals, we express the utmost alarm at the IMF’s advice for countries to return to austerity once the current crisis recedes. This pandemic has laid bare the deadly repercussions of systematically weak investments in health, education and social protection, hardest felt by marginalized populations including women, older people, racial and ethnic minorities, informal workers and low-income families. This crisis has also shone light on the shrinking of the middle classes and worsening gap between rich and poor.

The IMF has spoken repeatedly of the need for a fair and green recovery. It has said that economic and gender inequality, climate change, and poor governance can weaken growth and undermine stability. In recent years, it developed operational guidance for staff on embedding gender and economic inequality analysis into its work and approved a macroeconomic framework for social spending. All of this would suggest that the IMF is ready to use its influence and authority to support countries in reducing inequality.

And yet, despite this rhetoric and its own warnings of deepening inequality, the IMF has already started locking countries into new long-term austerity-conditioned loan programs in the past few months. Beyond the conditionality in these recent programs, we note that a significant number of the IMF’s COVID-19 emergency financing packages contain language promoting fiscal consolidation in the recovery phase. And with governments struggling to pay increased debt servicing and expected to continue to need extraordinary levels of external financing for years to come, IMF loan programs — and the conditions that accompany them — will play a highly influential role in shaping the economic and social landscape in the aftermath of this pandemic.

Fiscal consolidation driven austerity would only worsen poverty and inequality and undermine the achievement of economic and social rights. The IMF’s own research corroborates this. Time and time again, rigid and rapid fiscal consolidation conditioned in IMF programs has meant devastating cuts in health and education investments, losses of hard-earned pensions and social protections, public wage freezes, layoffs, and exacerbated unpaid care work burdens. In all cases, it is the most vulnerable people in societies who bear the brunt of these reforms, while the elite, large corporations and creditors enjoy the benefits. Aside from the direct impacts, fiscal consolidation doesn’t ensure economic recovery and the creation of new jobs, and rapid consolidation could instead deepen the downturn. It won’t deliver a just transition towards climate resilient economies either.

Instead of austerity cuts, it is critical to create fiscal space and give governments the time, flexibility and support to achieve a sustainable, inclusive and just recovery. Immediate and urgent steps are needed to support the financial health of countries through grants and other highly concessional financing, supporting debt cancellation and restructuring, and issuing a new allocation of Special Drawing Rights. Medium to longer term recovery efforts, however, should continue promoting further fiscal and policy space that allows for an increase, rather than a decrease, in social spending, and progressive tax policies that collect sufficient revenue and redistribute wealth fairly.

This means systematically assessing the impacts of fiscal policy reforms on gender and economic inequality and rejecting those that have negative social impacts. It means negotiating agreements transparently with input from a range of stakeholders including civil society through national social dialogue. It means recommending and promoting progressive tax reforms such as taxes on wealth and the excess profits of large corporations, meaningfully combatting tax evasion, avoidance and illicit financial flows. And it means systematically supporting governments to restructure their debts so that they can prioritize investments in quality public services.

The global economy stands at a crossroads between further decades of austerity and debt crises, or adopting a macroeconomic framework compatible with fighting inequality, pursuing climate justice, realizing human rights and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.

Ahead of the 2020 IMF Annual Meetings, we call on the IMF to turn away from the mistakes of the past and finally close the dark chapter on IMF-conditioned austerity for good.

List of Signatories

Organization Signatories:

1. Academics Stand Against Poverty (ASAP)
2. Accountability Lab
3. Act Church of Sweden
4. Action against Hunger
5. Action contre la Faim — France
6. ACTION Global Health Partnership
7. ActionAid International
8. Afghanistan National Education Coalition Org.
9. Africa Climate and Health Alliance
10. Africa Earth Environment and Wildlife Defenders
11. Africa Network Campaign on Education for All (ANCEFA)
12. African Coalition on Green Growth
13. Africans Rising
14. Afrihealth Optonet Association
15. Afrikajom Center
18. AIPD
19. Al Hayat Center for Civil Society Development
20. Albanian Coalition for Education
21. Alliance contre la Pauvreté au Mali (GCAP Mali)
22. Alliance of CSOs in Tajikistan for Education
23. Alliance of Women Advocating for Change
24. Alliance Sud
27. Approche Participative, Développement et Santé de Proximité (APDSP)
28. Arab Campaign for Education for All (ACEA)
29. Arab Forum for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
30. Arab NGO Network for Development (ANND)
31. Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development
32. Asia South Pacific Association for Basic and Adult Education (ASPBAE)
33. Asian Peoples’ Movement on Debt and Development
34. Asociacion Ciudadana por los Derechos Humanos
35. Asociación Po Ti Mujer
36. Assocation Deme So
37. Association Beninoise de Droit du Developpement (ABDD)
38. Association Congolaise pour le Développement Agricole (ACDA)
39. Association de Développement Agricole Éducatif et Sanitaire
40. Association Démocratique des Femmes du Maroc (ADFM)
41. Association for Promotion Sustainable Development
42. Association of Women Action (AOWA)
43. Association of Womens Organizations in Jamaica (AWOJA)
44. Association Tunisienne de Droit du Développement
45. ATGL
46. Aube Nouvelle pour la Femme et le Développement (ANFD)
47. Bank Information Center
48. Beirut Cooperative Association
49. Blood Patients Protection Council, Kerala
50. Botswana Forum for Action and Reform
51. Brazilian Campaign for the Right to Education
52. Bretton Woods Project
53. BUKO Pharma-Kampagne
54. Cadire Cameroon Association
55. CADTM International
57. Campaign for Popular Education (CAMPE)
58. Campaña Latinoamericana por el Derecho a la Educación (CLADE)
59. Caritas Honduras
60. CCFD-Terre Solidaire
61. Center for Economic and Social Rights
62. Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL)
63. Center for Women’s Global Leadership
64. Center Women and Modern World
65. Centre for Advancement of Civil Liberties and Development
66. Centre for Health Science and Law (CHSL)
67. Centro de los Derechos del Campesino/Nicaragua
68. Centro de Promoción y Defensa de los Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos (PROMSEX)
69. Cetro de Derechos Económicos y Sociales (CDES)
70. Child Rights Centre Albania
71. Childhood Education International
72. Children and Young People Living for Peace (CYPLP)
73. Citoyens Actifs pour la Justice Sociale
74. Claim the Future
75. CNCD-11.11.11
76. Coalition for Education Solomon Islands (COESI)
77. Coalition Marocaine pour l’Education Pour Tous
78. Comité de América Latina y el Caribe para la Defensa de los Derechos de las Mujeres (CLADEM)
79. CoopeSoliDar R.L
80. Coordinadora de la Mujer
81. CPM Micaela Bastidas
82. Debt Free Project
83. Debt Observatory in Globalisation (ODG)
84. Delphi Capital
85. DemNet Hungary
86. De-Signature Casuals
87. Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN)
88. Dianova International
89. Disabled People’s International (DPI)
90. Diverse Voices and Action (DIVA) for Equality
91. Dominican Leadership Conference
92. Dominican Sisters of Peace
94. Durakhshi Marifat NGO
95. Earthlife Africa Jhb
96. East African Centre for Human Rights
97. Echoes of Women in Africa Initiatives
98. Ecumenical Popular Education Program (ANPE)
99. Education for all Somalia coalition (EFASOM)
100. Education International
101. Ekvilib Institute
102. Emmaus International
103. Emonyo Yefwe International
104. EnaBanda
105. Entropía Social A.C.
106. Equal Education
107. Equidad de Género: Ciudadanía, Trabajo y Familia
108. Equipo Juridico por los Derechos Humanos
110. Eurodad
111. EuroMed Rights
112. EuSAIN
113. Faitima Jinnah OGA
114. Farmers’ Voice (Krisoker Sor)
115. Feminist Task Force
117. Finn Church Aid
118. FOKUS — Forum for Women and Development
119. Fondo Semillas
120. Foro Social de Deuda Externa y Desarrollo de Honduras (FOSDEH)
121. Forum Social Senegalais
122. Forum Tunisien pour les Droits Economiques et Sociaux
123. Foundation for Integrated Rural Development
124. Freedom from Debt Campaign Pakistan
125. Friends of the Earth US
126. Fundacion Arcoiris por el respeto a la diversidad sexual
127. Fundación de Mujeres Luna Creciente
128. Fundación Mexicana para la Planeación Familiar, A. C. (MEXFAM)
129. Fundacion para Estudio y Investigacion de la Mujer (FEIM)
130. Fundación Unid@s
131. Gatef organization
132. GCE-Italy
133. Gender Action
134. Gender and Development Network
135. Gender and Development in Practice (GADIP)
136. Genderccsa
137. Gestos (soropositividade, comunicação, gênero)
138. Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (GAATW)
139. Global Alliance for Tax Justice
140. Global Campaign for Education
141. Global Campaign for Education Netherlands
142. Global Campaign for Education US
143. Global Health Advocates France
144. Global Initiative for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
145. Global Justice Now
146. Global Network of Sex Work Projects
147. Global Policy Forum
148. Global Social Justice Program at IPD
149. Global South Coalition for Dignified Menstruation
150. GRAP Senegal
151. Green Economy Coalition
152. Greenpeace
153. Health Alliance International
154. Health Poverty Action
155. Hope for the Village Child Foundaton
156. Huldah Foundation
157. Human Rights Research Documentation Center (HURIC)
158. Human Rights Watch
159. IACE
160. IBON Foundation
161. Imaap Projects
162. Indus Consortium
163. Initiative for Social and Economic Rights (ISER)
164. Institut National des Administrateurs du Mali (INAM)
165. Institute for Economic Justice
166. Institute for Economic Justice (South Africa)
167. Institute for Gender & Development Studies — University of West Indies
168. Instituto de Estudos Socioeconômicos (INESC)
169. Instituto de Justicia Fiscal, Brazil
170. Instituto Popular de Capacitación Colombia (IPC)
171. Instytut Globalnej Odpowiedzialności (IGO)
172. International Accountability Project
173. International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH)
174. International Trade Union Confederation
175. International Women’s Rights Action Watch Asia Pacific (IWRAW Asia Pacific)
177. Jamaa Resource Initiatives
178. Japan Civil Society Network on SDGs
179. Japan NGO Network for Education (JNNE)
180. Jordan Coalition for Education for All
181. Jordanian Coalition for Education
182. Jubilee Debt Campaign
183. Jubilee Scotland
184. Jubilee USA Network
185. Justice Is Global
186. K.U.L.U. — Women and Development
187. KRuHA
188. Ladysmith
189. Latindadd
190. Laura Thompson Coaching & Consulting Services
191. Lebanese Union of Persons with Physical Disabilities (LUPD)
192. Lift Saxum
193. Live Alive Network LIAN
194. Local Green Party/Prairie Greens
195. Madhyam
196. Maharashtra State Bank Employees Federation
197. Make Mothers Matter
198. MARUAH, Singapore
199. Mediating for the less privileged and Women Development (MEWOOD)
200. Medical IMPACT
201. Medicus Mundi International — Network Health for All (MMI)
202. Medicusmundi spain
203. MENA PLATFORM for Renewable Energies & Energy Efficiency
204. Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate
205. Movimiento Manuela Ramos
206. Murna Foundation
207. National Campaign for Sustainable Development Nepal
208. National Coalition of Civil Society Organizations of Liberia
209. Nawi — Afrifem Macroeconomics Collective
210. Network for Women´s Rights and Feminist Perspectives in Development (WIDE)
211. Nigerian Women Agro Allied Farmers Association
212. NQBSS Livestock Breeders
213. Observatoire de Suivi des Indicateurs de Développement Économique en Afrique (OSIDEA)
214. Observatori DESC
215. Observatorio de la Deuda
216. Oikos — Cooperação e Desenvolvimento
217. ONG 3D
218. ONG Étoiles de la fraternité
219. ONG Un Monde Avenir
220. Our Lady of Perpetual Help Initiative
221. Oxfam
222. Pakistan Fisherfolk Forum
223. Panafricaine pour l’Education au Developpement Durable (PAEDD)
224. Papua New Guinea Education Advocacy Network
225. Participatory Development Action Program
226. PCQVP Mali
227. People’s Health Movement Canada/Mouvement populaire pour la santé au Canada
228. Phakamani Trust
229. Phelyn Skill Acquisition Center (PSAC)
230. Phenix Center for Economic Studies
231. Piña Palmera A.C.
232. Plan International
233. Plataforma Auditoria Ciudadana de la Deuda
234. Policies for Equitable Access to Health (PEAH)
235. Policy Research in Macroeconomics (PRIME)
236. Princess of Africa Foundation
237. Public Services International (PSI)
238. Publiez Ce Que Vous Payez-Mali
239. Radha Paudel Foundation
240. Rapad Maroc
241. Rasheed for Integrity and Transparency
242. Rays of hope Support Iinitiative
243. Recourse
244. Red de Educación Popular entre Mujeres (REPEM)
245. Red Dot Foundation
246. Red Nicaragüense de Comercio Comunitario (RENICC)
247. Red por la Justicia Tributaria en Colombia y Centro de Estudios Cedetrabajo
248. Réseau Africain Pour le Droit à l’Alimentation Sénégal
249. Right to Education Initiative
250. Rose Academies
251. ROTAB Niger
252. Rural Area Development Programme (RADP)
253. Rwenzori Center for Research and Advocacy
254. Sadaqa
255. SECTION27 (South Africa)
256. Servicio Desarrollo Rural y Agricultira (SEDRA) Chile
257. Servicios Ecumenicos para Reconciliacion y Reconstrucction
258. Shirakat — Partnership for Development
259. Sisters of Charity Federation
260. Social Justice in Global Development
261. Socialist Campaign Group of MPs
262. Society for International Development (SID)
263. Society for Rights of Persons with Disability
264. Society for the Improvement of Rural People (SIRP)
265. South Asia Alliance for Poverty Eradication (SAAPE)
266. Southern Africa Climate Change Coalition
267. Strategic Initiative for women in the Horn of Africa (SIHA Network)
268. Success Capital Organisation
269. Sukaar Welfare Organization
270. Support for Women in Agriculture and Environment (SWAGEN)
271. Tamkeen for legal aid and Human Rights
272. Tedhelte
274. The East African Centre for Human Rights
275. The Human Rights and Privatization Project at NYU School of Law
276. The Iraqi Institution for Development
277. The Jordanian Association for Basic Education
278. The Kota Alliance
279. The Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation
280. The People’s Fund for Global Health and Development
281. Third World Network
282. Transnational Institite
283. Tripla Difesa Onlus
284. Triumphant Health & Development Initiative (THAD)
285. UNABU-Rwanda
286. Urgent Action Fund for Women’s Human Rights
287. Uthema Maldives
288. Vision Spring Initiatives
289. VSO
290. Water Justice and Gender
291. Wemos
292. Win Without War
293. Woman Inc
294. Womankind Worldwide
295. Women Against Rape Inc.
296. Women and Modern World Social Charitable Center
297. Women Engage for a Common Future (WECF)
298. Women In Development Europe+ (WIDE+)
299. Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO)
300. Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom
301. Women’s Major Group
302. Wote Youth Development Projects
303. YDA
304. Yemen Organization for Promoting Integrity
305. Youth and Small Holder Farmers Association
306. Youth For Environment Education and Development Foundation (YFEED Foundation)
307. Zimbabwe Climate Change Coalition
308. Zimbabwe Institute for International Affairs

Academic Signatories

309. Medha A S
310. Khalil Abu Radwan
311. Meena Acharya, Tanka Prasad Acharya Memorial Foundation (TPAMF)
312. Frank Adamson, California State University
313. Olanrewaju Adediran
314. Kanika Agarwal
315. Astrid Agenjo-Calderón, Universidad Pablo de Olavide de Sevilla
316. A. Haroon Akram-Lodhi, Trent University
317. Manuel Alcantara-Saez
318. Rasha Alyatim
319. Prem Anand
320. Bethsabé Andía Pérez, Instituto Runa de Desarrollo y Estudios de Género
321. Kossi Apedo
322. Fidel Aroche Reyes
323. Joaquín Arriola, Universidad del País Vasco-Euskal Herriko Unibersitatea
324. Venkatesh Athreya, Bharathidasan University
325. Radhika Balakrishnan, Rutgers University
326. David Barkin
327. Eudine Barriteau, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus
328. Nicola Bates, Royal Holloway University of London
329. Walden Bello
330. Suzanne Bergeron, University of Michigan, Dearborn
331. Gunseli Berik, University of Utah
332. Anne-Emanuelle Birn, University of Toronto
333. Chiara Bodini, Centre for International and Intercultural Health, University of Bologna
334. Julio Boltvinik, El Colegio de México
335. Korkut Boratav, Turkish Social Science Organisaton
336. Lea Bou Khater
337. Abdoul Maliky Bousso, Forum Civil membre du Bureau Exécutif
338. Roger Bove, West Chester University
339. Andrea Burke, Western University
340. Theopiste Butare
341. Saratchand C, Satyawati College, University of Delhi
342. Francisco Calbet
343. Francisco Cantamutto, IIESS UNS-CONICET
344. Gloria Careaga, Facultad de Psicologia
345. Andrea Cerdeira
346. Sergio Cesaratto, University of Siena
347. Cecilia Chan, The University of Hong Kong
348. C. P. Chandrasekhar, Jawaharlal Nehru University
349. Anuradha Chenoy
350. Andrés Chiriboga-Tejada, Max Plank Sciences Po Center on Coping with Instability in Market Societies (MaxPo)
351. Anis Chowdhury, Western Sydney University
352. Licia Cianetti, Royal Holloway, University of London
353. Lylian Coelho Ferreira, INWES
354. Marjorie Griffin Cohen, Simon Fraser University
355. Andrew Cornford
356. Agostina Costantino, CONICET-UNS
357. Christopher Cramer
358. Sharmistha DasBarwa
359. Dilara Demir
360. Ritu Dewan, Mumbai School of Economics & Public Policy, University of Mumbai
361. Massamba Diene
362. Lena Dominelli
363. Edme Dominguez R
364. Peter Dorman, Evergreen State College
365. Devika Dutt, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
366. Narasimha Reddy Duvvuru, University of Hyderabad
367. Gary Dymski, University of Leeds
368. Tom Dyson, Royal Holloway College, University of London
369. Nevine Ebeid
370. Martin Edwards, Seton Hall University
371. Diène El Hadji Bara
372. Rebecca Engel
373. Sofia Ercolessi, London School of Economics and Political Science
374. Bilge Erten
375. Fernanda Faria Silva, Federal University of Ouro Preto
376. Frederik Federspiel, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
377. Ben Fine, School of Oriental and African Studies
378. Marzia Fontana, The Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex
379. John Foster, University of Regina
380. Odile Frank, Global Coalition for Social Protection Floors
381. Mia Gandenberger
382. José Manuel García
383. Leonardo Garnier, Universidad de Costa Rica
384. Laura Gatto, University of Lausanne
385. Shambhu Ghatak
386. Jayati Ghosh, Jawaharlal Nehru University
387. Paul Gilbert, University of Sussex
388. Mwangi Githinji
389. Ilene Grabel, Josef Korbel School, University of Denver
390. Alberto Grana
391. Tyrone Grandstrand, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College
392. Katarzyna Gruszka
393. Krzysztof Hagemejer, Collegium Civitas
394. Emmanuel Haruna, Kobe University
395. Asha Herten-Crabb, London School of Economics
396. Himanshu Himanshu, Centre for Economic Studies and Planning, Jawaharlal Nehru University
397. Craig Holmes, Oxford University
398. Jason Hoobler
399. Prue Hyman, Victoria University of Wellington
400. Okwor Ijeoma
401. Gustavo Indart, Department of Economics, University of Toronto
402. Elisabet Jané Camacho
403. Rajiv Jha, Shri Ram College of Commerce, Delhi University
404. Naresh Kumar Jhamb, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board
405. Will Jones, Royal Holloway, University of London
406. Pramod (Raja) Junankar, UNSW Canberra
407. Fadhel Kaboub, Denison University
408. Aarushi Kalra, Brown University
409. Zahra Karimi, University of Mazandaran
410. Eduardo Katalahary
411. Bhola Khan, Yobe State University
412. Ausi Kibowa
413. Konstantin Kilibarda, School of Labour Studies, McMaster University
414. Mary King, Portland State University
415. Gabriele Koehler, UNRISD
416. Jeanne Koopman, Boston University African Studies Center
417. Ronald Labonte, University of Ottawa
418. Kathleen Lahey, Faculty of Law, Queen’s University
419. Daniela Lai, Royal Holloway, University of London
420. Melissa Langworthy
421. Thibaut Lauwerier, University of Geneva
422. Stephan Lefebvre, Bucknell University
423. Jens Lerche, SOAS, University of London
424. Adam Lerner
425. Masaya Llavaneras Blanco
426. Rita Locatelli
427. Rodrigo Lopez-Pablos, ITMO University
428. Diouf Mamadou — Mignane
429. Laura Mann
430. Divine Manu
431. Pablo José Martínez Osés
432. Pietro Masina, University of Naples L’Orientale
433. Ana Luíza Matos de Oliveira
434. Marjorie Mbilinyi
435. Terry McKinley, SOAS, University of London
436. Kate Meagher, London School of Economics
437. Jameson Mencias, CELAG
438. Pedro Mendes Loureiro, University of Cambridge
439. John Miller, Wheaton College
440. Aniruddha Mitra, Bard College
441. Mritiunjoy Mohanty
442. Tracy Mott, University of Denver
443. Ndiaye Moustapha
444. Muhammed Muqtada, International Labour Organization (ILO)
445. G.N. Nagaraj
446. Luiz M Niemeyer, Economics Department, Catholic University of Sao Paulo
447. Bindu Oberoi
448. Uchenna Obiajulu
449. Akaninyene Obot, Nnamdi Azikiwe University
450. Sarah Olembo
451. Ben O’Loughlin
452. Ozlem Onaran, University of Greenwich
453. T. Sabri Öncü
454. Isabel Ortiz, Global Social Justice Program IPD
455. Mustafa Özer
456. Opal Palmer Adisa, University of the West Indies
457. Nuria Pedrals Pugès
458. Maria Pentaraki, Queen’s University Belfast
459. Patricia E. Perkins, York University
460. Ivica Petrikova
461. James Pfeiffer, University of Washington
462. Nicolas Pons-Vignon, La Scuola universitaria professionale della Svizzera italiana (SUPSI)
463. Pratiush Prakash
464. James Putzel, London School of Economics
465. Alicia Puyana
466. Katharine Ransom, The Outreach Team
467. Roland Riachi, American University of Beirut
468. Paul Robertson
469. Leopoldo Rodriguez, Portland State University
470. Naomi Roht-Arriaza, UC Hastings Law
471. Marco Romero
472. Rick Rowden, American University
473. Ariela Ruiz Caro, Andean Region and Southern Cone, The Americas Program
474. Judith Ryder
475. Alfredo Saad Filho, King’s College London
476. Babacar Sall
477. Carmen Sarasua
478. Esther Schneider
479. Caitlin Schroering, University of Pittsburgh
480. Patricia Schulz
481. Stephanie Seguino
482. Veronica Serafini
483. Om Sharma
484. Rasheed Shittu
485. Eleuterio Fernando Silva Prado, University of Sao Paulo
486. Ana Sojo
487. Frances Stewart, University of Oxford
488. Diana Strassmann, Rice University
489. Paul Stubbs
490. Thomas Stubbs, Royal Holloway, University of London
491. Ignasi Terradas, The University of Barcelona
492. María Luisa Torregrosa, FLACSO Mexico
493. Irene van Staveren
494. Elisa Van Waeyenberge, SOAS, University of London
495. Leonidas Vatikiotis
496. María-Luisa Vazquez
497. Denisse Vélez
498. Teófilo Ventura
499. Frans Verhagen, International Institute for Monetary Transformation
500. Giovanna Vertova, University of Bergamo
501. Stella Maris Vuillermet, Foro De Generos PCIA BS AS Y CABA
502. Warren Whatley, University of Michigan
503. Veronika Wodsak
504. Yavuz Yasar, University of Denver
505. Ajit Zacharias, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College

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Oxfam International

Oxfam is a world-wide development organization that mobilizes the power of people against poverty.